Guided Response: Consider ways in which you might like to interact with your peers.

Guided Response: Consider ways in which you might like to interact with your peers. For example, what similarities or differences do you observe regarding how your peers perceive culture? Can you elaborate on the examples shared by your peers with your own examples or insight? Please be courteous and adhere to the rules of respectful engagement throughout your replies.



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I used to think that culture was the values and beliefs of a group of people. But our text helps to understand what culture is. According to our text “culture is defined as the relatively specialized lifestyle of a group of people that is passed on from one generation to the next through communication not through genes” (Devito, J.A., 2016, Sec. 2.1). In order to understand culture we can look at values, beliefs, language, and their way of communicating. We must look at the differences from culture to culture such as is it individualistic or collectivist orientation, the power structure, masculinity and femininity, their tolerance for ambiguity, orientation and indulgence and restraint. (Devito, J.A., 2016). All of these factors influence communication. “One reason why culture is so important is that interpersonal competence is culture specific, what proves effective in one culture may prove ineffective in another” (Devito, J.A., 2016, Sec. 2.1). We may have certain attitudes about things based on the culture we were raised in. In order to communicate effectively these attitudes and beliefs must be set aside. We have to have an open mind and see things from others perspectives. I was raised in a family that instilled good morals and values in me, I am a spiritual person not a religious one and I find all religions have one thing in common putting others needs before our own. I see everyone as my equal and have a positive outlook on life. I am mindful and considerate of others perspectives. 

Cultural orientation is important for interpersonal communication when working as a human service professional for many reasons. First what is effective in one culture may be ineffective in another. Understanding the values that other cultures hold helps to promote effective communication. Understanding the religious beliefs of others is beneficial as well. For example if I was working with a client with SUD who was an Atheist and told them to look into spirituality or religion to help them find sobriety this might be offensive to them. So knowing their religious beliefs would be helpful in communicating with this client. The more we understand other cultures the better we will be at interpersonal communication with those individuals.


Devito, J.A. (2016). The interpersonal communication book (14th ed) Retreived from


Culture is a set of values, beliefs, and attitudes (DeVito, 2019). It is passed down from one generation to the next and teaches how to act, think, and feel through enculturation (DeVito, 2019). People develop an ethnic identity, which is a commitment to beliefs, and the philosophies held by a culture. Culture is a learned behavior (DeVito, 2019).

Individual and Collective Orientation is one of the examples of an impact on the culture as a whole. High- and Low-Context Cultures are another, and finally, Power Distance is a third. All three describe cultural differences and how different cultures behave given the frameworks of the examples. Whether a society believes an individual is more important than the collective society is a cultural value. Power distances focus on communication and the ability to form relationships between statuses. High context cultures are identified as collectivist cultures. Low context cultures are known by all members (DeVito, 2019).

As a human service worker, I will need to recognize the differences between myself and others from different cultures. The differences will be assuming there are no differences when there are, and how to understand how those differences can affect communication. A Catholic will show signs of grief when someone dies by crying and surround themselves with family. Another culture might separate themselves from everyone to grieve in private. A Jewish person will sit “Shiva” with a dead person right after death, whereas another culture would never sit with a dead person. Confronting stereotypes is important when communicating with different cultures (Understanding Cultural Competency 2020). It is essential to be aware of personal biases and work toward cultural competency. Internal belief systems should be analyzed to confront biases toward other cultures that challenge those beliefs and hamper communication. Knowing that we have blind spots toward other cultures can help people learn to communicate more efficiently with people different from ourselves.


DeVito, J. A. (2019). The interpersonal communication book(14th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc.

Understanding Cultural Competency. (2020).

Guided Response: Consider ways in which you might like to interact with your peers. For example, did you learn about the communication theories from the responses of your peers? Please be courteous and adhere to the rules of respectful engagement throughout your replies.


Constructivism is a learning theory found in psychology which explains how people might acquire knowledge and learn. It therefore has direct application to education. The theory suggests that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences. Constructivism’s central idea is that human learning is constructed, that learners build new knowledge upon the foundation of previous learning. This prior knowledge influences what new or modified knowledge an individual will construct from new learning experiences.

Communication accommodation theory elaborates the human tendency to adjust their behavior while interacting. The reason behind this behavior is explained as to control the social differences between the people interacting. People accommodate their communication activities to get approval and to set a positive image in front of the other person. The environment in which they are interacting also affects the communication behavior.

Attribution theory is concerned with how individuals interpret events and how this relates to their thinking and behavior. Attribution theory assumes that people try to determine why people do what they do and attribute causes to behavior. A person seeking to understand why another person did something may attribute one or more causes to that behavior.

The two communication theories that I feel can be applied best to the human service field is Constructivism and Communication Accommodation theories. The Constructivism theory discusses ways people acquire knowledge and learn. As a human service professional, you would use this theory to best understand how your clients learn from the experience or the issue they may be dealing with. Knowing that knowledge and their learning will help you help them build on what they need to do to experience a new learning experience and not fall into the same dilemma. By building a new way of learning, it may help your client to not repeat the same issue twice, or find a better way to handle any situations that may arise. You can also use this theory to help the community or society understand the human service field a little more and be more comfortable and willing to participate in the human service field. By knowing how the community absorbs information, you may be able to reach out to them better. The Communication Accommodation theory I believe would help the professional in the human service field. As a professional it is important to know when you need to adjust your behavior, actions, words, etc. while speaking with your clients. When speaking with your clients your actions and words can make them either talk with you and open up or not. If we are using negative words and actions it can cause the client to put up a barrier and feel uncomfortable. When your client is uncomfortable, you will not be able to get information from them or have any willing communication from them as well, thus it will make your job impossible.


Delia, J. (1977). Constructivism and the study of human communication. Quarterly Journal of
Speech, 63(1), 66-83.


Constructivism- is often applied to fields as psychology and education to describe how we understand things and how we see the world. Stated by Jesse Delia professor and developer of constructions as it relates to interpersonal communication. The core idea that people have experiences in their worlds. Communication theory is many scholars that have provided insight into this perspective some of the major contributors to constructivism include Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky.

Communication Accommodation Theory- When we talk to other people we will attend to change our style of speech (accent, rate, types of words) towards the style used by the listener. This will allow your clients to open up to you more by gaining trust. Trust is the number one key to communication because you always allow the client to talk first while you be the listener.

Attribution theory- We all have the need to express the world to ourselves and others. This gives a greater sense of control when explaining a behavior it can affect the standing of people within a group. When others have erred we often use internal attribution saying it is due to internal personality factors. Our attributions are driven by our emotional and motivational drives. We tend to blame others and avoiding personal recrimination is very self-serving.

Levels of attachment, as related to the attachment theory, be used by human service professionals to understand client needs by being able to help yourself first before helping others. You have to know your culture and other culture so you will know the right commutation to hold to help others. Never talk over the client you are helping always be an open ear by letting them talk and use good eye contact to let them know you are listening. (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)


Respond to at least two of your classmates


Confidentiality – ORG6520 Week 3 Discussion

A scenario:

Lucy, a Social Services Worker in Economic Assistance, reviews an alert for an application received for LIHEAP. While scanning the narratives and documenting images, Lucy sees that I recently entered that per previous narratives and residency verification, the mother, Annie, is currently incarcerated at the Lancaster County Correctional Center for prostitution allegations Methamphetamine possession. The children are in state custody. The children’s program case has been closed to initiate a new case while the children are in an active placement outside of the home. Other notations that I authorized Medicaid from CHIP to MAGI Child to provide extended care for the children as allegations of gross neglect and sexual abuse have arisen. Later while grocery shopping, Lucy discusses the situation with Susie, her best friend from Doane University. Although names are unmentioned, Jane, another customer standing in line behind Lucy, overhears Lucy’s phone conversation. Lucy is showing no regard for confidentiality or privacy. Lucy is also unaware that Jane is the client’s sister, where the children have been in care. With Jane, is Timmy and Tommy, the children involved.

As Social Services at DHHS, the agency is represented by multiple divisions collaborating to best serve those in crisis or vulnerable to poverty or enduring abuse. The scope of information necessary to engage services and determine eligibility is a collaborative art. The plethora of highly confidential information revolving sustainable living, poverty, and disparity can be generalized or reveal intimate and disturbing observations and correspondence. To determine initial eligibility, a continuation of eligibility, and resources to aid the public need, the agency coordinates within state and federal guidelines and specific poverty levels. Medicaid, Medicare, and healthcare funding are complicated, requiring the warranting of financial status to substantiate health insurance’s necessity.


Confidentiality ensures that access to information of any type is kept among the essential parties involved unless otherwise mandated to report or pertinent information is imminent for legal reasons, including abuse or fraud. The matters must remain within the agency rather than straying into personal conversations within the home or public.


Privacy includes discretion in receiving, handling, and storing personal information for a case or client. Measures include password protection, locking of monitors and files while away even if momentarily, and securing all correspondence on secure networks and firewalls and secured clearance for access.

Privileged Communication

Privileged Communication is specific; for instance, behavioral health and rehabilitation services are protected under HIPAA. In contacting third parties, I do have to identify myself as The State of Nebraska, the Department of Health of Human Services; however, I do not divulge the client’s case-specific details. Another scenario commonly found in the cross-communication within the agency, including the clinical findings or court proceedings about (a) child(ren), the elderly, or a disabled client, or the dynamics or diagnosis revolving their case(s).

Duty to Warn

Duty to Warn is a cautionary measure and effort to advise potential. In my position, a duty to warn advises state and federal policy, the requirements and timely and adequate notice of action for and against the client, and failure to provide resulting in denial or closure of benefits. If the safety or welfare of any person is threatened, I must report.

Duty to Protect

Duty to protect is the active intervention to prevent harm to another. Mandatory reporting as standard practice within the medical and clinical settings or a law enforcement official’s obligations is an excellent example of this duty. These stipulations are part of the details I may encounter in sex trafficking, domestic violence, and abuse, which are escalated to authorities, and measures to restrict the case are in place immediately.


Discuss the differences between confidentiality, privacy, and privileged communication, as well as the differences between the duty to warn and duty to protect.

Confidentiality communication is when you speak of a clients in private, keep files safe from eyes, use case numbers instead of names, only speak of clinets to people who are within the offfice, not to use any clients names, do not give out names, dob, address or details of case or persons involved in the case.

Privacy communication is when a persons information is given to someone and to be kept private.

 privileged communication is a private statement that must be kept in confidence by the recipient for the benefit of the communicator. Even if it is relevant to a case, a privileged communication cannot be used as evidence in court. Privileged communications are controversial because they exclude relevant facts from the truth-seeking process. Privileged communications exist because society values the privacy or purpose of certain relationships. The established privileged communications are those between wife and husband, clergy and communicant, psychotherapist and patient, physician and patient, and attorney and client.

The duty to warn refers to a counselor’s obligation to warn identifiable victims. The duty to protect is a counselor’s duty to reveal confidential client information in the event that the counselor has reason to believe that a third party may be harmed.

The understanding of a counselor’s duty to warn begins with acknowledgment of the difference between the ethical responsibility of confidentiality and the legal term of privileged communication.

 What would you think is the most important aspect of confidentiality as it relates to your profession?

SInce I work in the medical field all information that is given to me from a patient from name to when I take vitals and history that is all confidentiality. Anything that the patient writes down to telling us we have to keep in the office. We are not allowed to speak of patient information or history as that would be a breach of contract and we can get in big trouble for doing so.

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