The push toward accountability seen throughout the P-12 educational settings is now evidenced within teacher preparation programs, ensuring that universities and colleges are adequately preparing future teachers for the task. Such pressures are even more rampant within the field of special education. Special education teachers are tasked with the responsibility of not only ensuring students, individual needs are being met with meaningful curriculum and instruction, but that they are making adequate progress toward their goals and objectives. Student learning rests at the core of accountability within educational systems (Fullan & Quinn, 2016). While internal accountability focuses on individuals’ and groups’ efforts at continuous improvement and success for all students, external accountability focuses on leaders’ responsibility to be transparent with the public about the system’s ability to meet expectations and requirements. Both internal and external accountability are integral to the Coherence Framework, strengthening the vision and collaboration of the organization, thus establishing deepening of learning goals. For this Discussion, you will analyze both internal and external accountability and their role in whole systems change. As the special education leader, how will you secure accountability?
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- Review Chapter 5, “Securing Accountability,” in the Fullan and Quinn text, focusing on the aspects of internal and external accountability. How would you distinguish between internal and external accountability?
- Reflect on the Norman and Sherwood (2015) article, considering how internal and external accountability measures have shaped teacher preparation programs.
- Reflect on the plans you have created for the case scenario viewed in Modules 2 and 3 so far and reflect on how you would secure accountability if you were a leader of the staff in this scenario.
An explanation of how you would build internal accountability based on the case scenario. What steps would you recommend to ensure effective implementation of external accountability? Include an analysis of each concept and evidence from the case scenario, as well as other learning resources to support your rationale.
Fullan, M., & Quinn, J. (2016). Coherence: The right drivers in action for schools, districts, and systems. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.
- Chapter 4, “Deepening Learning” (pp. 77–108)
- Chapter 5, “Securing Accountability” (pp. 109–126)
Leadership from the Middle: A System Strategy by Fullan, M., in Education Canada, Winter 2015. Copyright 2015 by Canadian Education Association. Reprinted by permission of Canadian Education Association via the Copyright Clearance Center.
Norman, P. J. & Sherwood, S. A. S. (2015). Using internal and external evaluation to shape teacher preparation curriculum: A model for continuous program improvement. New Educator, 11(1), 4-23. Doi: 10.1080/1547688X.2015.1001263
Leko, M.M., Brownell, M.T., Sindelar, P.T., & Kiely, M.T. (2015). Envisioning the future of special education personnel preparation in a standards-based era. Exceptional Children, 82(1), 25-43. doi: 10.1177/0014402915598782
Liu, P. (2015). Motivating teachers’ commitment to change through transformational school leadership in Chinese urban upper secondary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 53(6), 735–754. doi: 10.1108/JEA-02-2014-002
Rock, M.L., et al (2016). 21st century change drivers: Considerations for constructive transformative models of special education teacher development. The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 39(2), 98-120. doi: 10.1177/0888406416640634
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